Randy L. Korotev
Campus Box 1169
1 Brookings Dr
Saint Louis MO 63130-4899
Lunar Geochemistry & Lunar Meteorites
Dr. Korotev uses the chemical composition of lunar material as a tool to understand lunar geology. He is mainly interested in the impact history of the Moon, how the Moon’s surface has been affected by meteorite impacts, and the nature of the early lunar crust.
With his colleagues, Dr. Korotev measures and models the compositions of samples from the Apollo and Luna missions and from lunar meteorites. He also uses mineralogical and compositional data obtained by the Clementine (1994) and Lunar Prospector (1998-1999) missions. He has developed techniques for precisely determining the chemical composition of large batches of lunar samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis.
The lunar surface is covered by a blanket of rock debris produced by more than 4 billion years of impacts. All of the samples collected on the Moon came from that regolith, which consists of material ranging in size from fine powder to house-sized blocks. Measurements made by orbiting instruments such as those aboard Clementine and Prospector mainly obtained data from and about the regolith. Lunar “soils” (regolith fines) consist of material that has been mixed and transported by many impacts, both large and small, local and distant. Mixing is not complete, however, and compositional differences occur among the landing sites and among soil samples taken at different depths and from different locations at a given landing site because of variable proportions of component rocks. These variations largely reflect the local bedrock geology, but also the nature and efficiency of the impact-mixing process.
The study of soils complements the study of rocks because the soils give a more representative estimate of the distribution of different rock types at a site than does the study of any reasonable number of large rocks. The compositions of soils can be modeled as mixtures of rock types observed to occur in the soil. However, many of these rocks types are themselves polymict breccias and glasses composed of more primitive rock types that have been melted, shocked, and relithified by numerous impacts; unbrecciated fragments of the original lunar crust are rare. Thus, in principal, it is also possible to account for the composition of a soil or breccia as mixture of igneous rocks of the earliest lunar crust even though those rocks are no longer easily identifiable components of the polymict samples. By combining data for samples with compositional data obtained by remote sensing of the lunar surface, the composition and mineralogy of the lunar crust can be inferred, and this imposes constraints on models for lunar crust formation and redistribution of material by large impacts. Dr. Korotev and his colleagues are also using the data from the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions to put data obtained lunar samples into a regional and global context.
Lunar meteorites are being found in remarkable numbers. They originate from 40 or more unknown locations on the Moon. Many are breccias composed of regolith. Several are unlike any rocks collected on the Apollo missions. Dr. Korotev and his colleagues study the geochemistry and petrology of lunar meteorites as a means of understanding the geological complexity of the Moon.
Most Recent Publications
Korotev R. L. and Zeigler R. A. (2014, in press) Chapter 6. ANSMET Meteorites from the Moon, Thirty-five Seasons of U.S. Antarctic Meteorites (1976–2010): A Pictorial Guide to the Collection, (editors K. Righter, R.P. Harvey, C.M. Corrigan, and T.J. McCoy), AGU Special Publications Series, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C., 296 pages, ISBN: 978-1-118-79832-4.
Wittmann A., Korotev R. L., Jolliff B. L., Lapen T. J., and Irving A. J. (2014, in press) The petrogenesis of impact basin melt rocks in lunar meteorite Shişr 161. American Mineralogist.
Seddio S. M., Jolliff B. L., Korotev R. L., and Carpenter P. K. (2014) Thorite in an Apollo 12 granite fragment and age determination using the electron microprobe. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 135, 307–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2014.03.020
Seddio S. M., Jolliff B. L., Korotev R. L., and Zeigler R. A. (2013) Petrology and geochemistry of lunar granite 12032,366-19 and implications for lunar granite petrogenesis. American Mineralogist 98, 1697–1713.
Korotev R. L. (2012) Lunar meteorites from Oman. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47, 1365–1402. doi: 10.1111/j.1945-5100.2012.01393.x
Liu D., Jolliff B. L., Zeigler R. A., Korotev R. L., Wan Y., Xie H., Zhang Y., Dong C., and Wang W. (2012) Comparative zircon U-Pb geochronology of impact melt breccias from Apollo 12 and lunar meteorite SaU 169, and the age of the Imbrium impact. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 319-320, 277–286.
Hudgins J. A., Kelley S. P., Korotev R. L., and Spray J. G. (2011) Mineralogy, geochemistry, and 40Ar - 39Ar geochronology of lunar granulitic breccia Northwest Africa 3163 and paired stones: Comparisons with Apollo samples. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 2865–2881.
Korotev R. L., Jolliff B. L., Zeigler R. A., Seddio S. M, and Haskin L. A. (2011) Apollo 12 revisited. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 1540–1573.
Korotev R. L., Zeigler R. A., and Floss C. (2010) On the origin of impact glass in the Apollo 16 regolith. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 7362–7388.
Korotev R. L., Zeigler R. A., Jolliff B. L., Irving A. J., and Bunch T. E. (2009) Compositional and lithological diversity among brecciated lunar meteorites of intermediate iron composition. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44, 1287–1322.
Haloda J., Týcová P., Korotev R. L., Fernandes V. A., Thöni M., Jakeš P., Gabzdyl P., and Košler J. (2009) Petrology, geochemistry and age of low-Ti lunar mare basalt meteorite Northeast Africa 003-A: A possible connection with Apollo 15 mare basalt volcanism. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 3450–3470.
Hudgins, J. A., Spray J. G., Kelley S. P, Korotev R. L., and Sherlock S. C. (2008) A laser probe 40Ar/39Ar and INAA investigation of four Apollo granulitic breccias. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72, 5799–5818.
Korotev R. L., Zeigler R. A., and Jolliff B. L. (2006) Feldspathic lunar meteorites Pecora Escarpment 02007 and Dhofar 489: Contamination of the surface of the lunar highlands by post-basin impacts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, 5935–5956.
Barra F., Swindle T. D., Korotev R. L., Jolliff B. L., Zeigler R. A., and Olson E. (2006) 40Ar-39Ar dating on Apollo 12 regolith: Implications on the age of Copernicus and the source of non-mare materials. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, 6016–6031.
Lunar Rocks and Lunar Meteorites
- Everything You Need to Know About Lunar Meteorites
- List of Lunar Meteorites: Alphanumeric Order | Alumina-Concentration Order
- Technical Literature on Lunar Meteorites
- Lunar Meteorites in Composition Space
- More Information About Lunar Meteorites
- How Do We Know It's a Rock from the Moon?
- Some Photos of Apollo Rocks
- Meteorite Realities
- What To Do If You Think You've Found a Meteorite
- Chemical Composition of Meteorites
- Photos of Meteorites in the Washington University Collection